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(S and N Railroad)

Skagit River Journal

of History & Folklore
Subscribers Edition
The most in-depth, comprehensive site about the Skagit

Covers from British Columbia to Puget Sound. Counties covered: Skagit, Whatcom, Island, San Juan, Snohomish & BC. An evolving history dedicated to committing random acts of historical kindness
Noel V. Bourasaw, editor (bullet) 810 Central Ave., Sedro-Woolley, Washington, 98284
Home of the Tarheel Stomp (bullet) Mortimer Cook slept here & named the town Bug

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The saloon on the frontier
and especially in Sedro and Woolley, plus:
The first saloons in Sedro-Woolley and upriver
The first saloons in Skagit County

By Noel V. Bourasaw, ©2002
Exclusive research from original records by the Skagit River Journal
(Woolley brothel)
The late Art "Tuffy" Pearson and other old-timers identified this photo by an unknown photographer as being of the interior of a cafe in downtown Woolley that acted as the waiting room for a brothel. Tuffy owned the Schooner Tavern a long time ago when it was still the Wixson Club and he once opined that the cafe in the photo may have stood on the site of the present Schooner. Because there is an oil lamp descending from the ceiling, we suspect that the photo was taken around the turn of the century. The most striking details of the photo, however, are the pages torn from magazines and pasted onto all the walls and the ceiling. Each features a Gibson girl or ideal woman. Apparently a patron would point to his favorite picture and the madam would try to match it with a girl who resembled the model.

      This is our introductory article to saloons and the subject of liquor in the frontier towns of Skagit county. We have three proud old taverns in Sedro-Woolley that all have solid roots. The Old Timers started in 1937 as a partnership between Eddie Adams, the world's champion shingle-packer of 1899 (April 16, 1899, Skagit County Times) and Ford Cook, the first three sport letterman at Sedro-Woolley High School. Moe's Castle Tavern was the first in town to obtain a license after Prohibition in January 1934 and the name is derived from the former Spanish Castle Bakery in the 1920s. But I have a special soft spot in my heart for the Schooner Tavern because I learned how to play pool there in 1957 while waiting to set pins at the bowling alley across the street. I have loved that beautiful, hand-carved back bar for nearly fifty years.
      The Schooner dates back to the original Wilson Club in 1910 and then became the Wixson Club, then the Red Dog and now the Schooner. We truly hope that some reader will know the story of when that back bar was installed and who brought it here. Anyone who loves classic back bars eventually comes to Schooner as if it were Mecca. And if you are old enough, you will remember the old back bar from the B&A Tavern. There were many tears shed when the B&A closed about 25 years ago. You can still visit that back bar but you will have to motor across Highway 20 to Winthrop where it is a fixture at the Winthrop Palace bar.
      efore Prohibition, taverns were called saloons and they were a key institution in frontier towns. If you want to learn about saloons and every-day life in the United States in the Victorian era, 1876-1915, we strongly suggest that you look for the book, Victorian America, by Thomas J. Schlereth, published by Harper Collins in 1991 (ISBN 0-06-016218-X). The author organizes his work into chapters on: moving, working, housing, consuming, communicating, playing, striving, living and dying. For example, the "playing" chapter has an excellent section on saloons that explains their role as an important institution in those days:

      'The saloon, in relation to the wage-earning classes in America,' noted Walter Wyckoff, who had studied it in researching his book on American Workers (1900), 'is an organ of high development, adapting itself with singular perfectness to its functions in catering in a hundred ways to the social and political needs of men.'
      As Wyckoff suggested, saloons played several roles in late 19th-century worker culture. They provided the services of a neighborhood center; they offered a semipublic (largely male) preserve away from work and home; and perhaps most important, they were the most popular leisure environment for male workers from the 1870s until the enactment of Prohibition in 1919.
      By 1897, licensed liquor dealers in the United States numbered over 215,000, and unlicensed 'blind pigs' and kitchen bars represented an estimated 50,000 additional drinking outlets. In Chicago, saloons outnumbered groceries, meat markets, and dry goods stores counted together at the turn of the century. In 1915, New York had over 10,000 licensed saloons, or one for every 515 persons; Chicago had one for every 335, San Francisco had one for every 218, and Houston had one for every 198. . . .
      The typical workingman's saloon was readily recognizable by its swinging, shuttered doors and front windows cluttered with potted ferns, posters, and advertising displays. Inside a bar counter often affectionately called 'the long mahogany' ran the length of the room, paralleled by a brass footrail. Across from the bar might be a few tables and chairs, a piano, pool table or rear stalls. Interior walls might sport advertisements and chromolithographs of [boxer] John L. Sullivan, Custer's Last Fight, or standard barroom nudes like Andromache at the Bath.
      Breweries increasingly furnished saloons with such popular art, as well as all their fixtures. In most saloons, draft beer sold for a nickel and whiskey for ten or fifteen cents. Men drank their whiskey straight — to do otherwise would have been considered effeminate — followed by a chaser of water, milk or buttermilk.
      The everyday work routine of a saloon began early, usually at 5 or 6 a.m., serving workers a morning bracer with the coffee they carried in their lunch pails. . . . Later the saloon did a brisk trade at its side or back door when wives and children came to carry out beer in buckets, cans or pitchers (called growlers) for the evening meal. finally, in the evening hours, the saloon returned to being a workingman's domain.
      Saloons furnished the only free toilets in many cities, provided teamsters with watering troughs for their animals, and supplied all patrons with free newspapers. Many times, saloon keepers also cashed checks and lent money to customers. Saloons doubled as convenience stores, selling cigars and cigarettes, headache powders and bonbons — nicknamed 'wife pacifiers.' Often they acted as communications centers, places where workers picked up their mail, left messages, had access to a telephone, heard the local political gossip, or learned of work opportunities. . . .
      [By the 1880s], the [free lunch] spread across the country; within a decade it was a institution. Usually set out about eleven o'clock each morning and left until three in the afternoon, the free lunch came with the purchase of a nickel beer. Salty and spicy to provoke thirst, lunch fare was usually ample: cold meats, sandwiches, hard-boiled eggs, bread, wursts, sliced tomatoes, onions and radishes. . . .
      The saloon supported and reinforced an all-male culture that was separate from the world of women and the demands of family. Drinking rituals reinforced male solidarity. The prevailing custom of 'treating' serves as an example. . . . Each man treated the group to a round of drinks and was expected to stay long enough to be treated, in turn, by others.

      You will probably have to look in used bookstores for this book, which gives marvelous example of dress of the day, what the home looked like, how teenagers acted and how lovers 'billed and cooed.'
(Egan-McGrath saloon)
      This is the interior of the Egan-McGrath saloon, which was in the Grand Central hotel at the foot of Metcalf street in Woolley, starting in the 1890s. In those days, Metcalf did not extend through and that site is now in the middle of the street. The bartender at the left is swarthy enough to star in any melodrama. Note the beautiful, hand-carved wooden back bar , the brass spittoon and the lack of bar stools. A real man stood while knocking one back in those days; stools were for sissies and stuffed shirts. This photo is courtesy of Lawrence Harnden Jr., a dear old friend and avid reader of our site. Nearly two dozen of his photos are being featured in Subscribers Edition of the Journal.

"Firsts" for saloons in Sedro, Woolley and the upper Skagit river
      Saloons in Sedro-Woolley generally followed the norm, but they especially catered to men who loved to hunt and fish and tell tall tales about those hobbies. In old Sedro by the river, there was only one real street — McDonald avenue (now River road), and saloons were located in every other building. If you recall the movie, McCabe and Mrs. Miller, imagine Sedro looking like that town, with mud replacing the snow. Writer June Burn interviewed old timers in the 1930s and they told her that the saloons had porches on pilings to keep them above the river when it was high. It may have been a tall tale, but some told her that when the patron loggers and railroad builders got rowdy, they were pushed over the porch into the mud and left to sleep it off until the next morning. We do not know much about new Sedro on Third street, but we suspect that the saloons dotted the east side of the street between Nelson and Jameson. In P.A. Woolley's early company town, the saloons generally clustered along Northern avenue, across from the original train depot, then built up on the 600 block of Metcalf and then along State street from First street to Third.
      To dispel a myth, there never were 17 or 21 — depending on the teller, saloons in Sedro-Woolley at any given time, at least according to public records. In this case, records were carefully kept, because saloons and liquor sales generated at least half the revenue of the early frontier towns. We have scoured the original ledgers and have never seen more than 11 saloons listed at any one time. They generally paid $100 per six months for their license and $10 per billiards table and card table.
      The first saloon license in this area was granted by the Whatcom county commissioners in 1883, before Skagit became a county, for an unnamed saloon in the Sterling precinct, presumably for the Ball & Barlow company store. In those very early days, a $1,000 bond was required; the license cost $100 for a year for retail liquor and $10 for a billiards table. That was soon followed by a license for C.F. Hess of Sterling for 6 months and that became the standard duration as Skagit county formed in November that year, with the money applied to the school fund. On page 112, there is a license granted to Waitts and Martin, unknown location.
      By the next fall, two more licenses were granted for Sterling as the mill there was really roaring: for Charles McNeely and Alexander McKay in October 1884 and A.H. Lindstedt in November.
      The Skagit county commissioners authorized a new grocery liquor license at their meeting on May 21, 1885, and the first one was granted to A.C. Davis in the Avon precinct. That is ironic because Avon was originally platted as a temperance town by A.K. Skaling and he enforced the rule with an iron first. But the Seattle & Northern rail line bypassed the original village at the bend of the river by a mile to the north, and a new town of North Avon was platted with a board sidewalk connecting the two. Davis was obviously in the northern burg and we can just imagine the traffic as laborers beat feet north.
      David Batey built Mortimer Cook's store in old Sedro by the river [actually called Bug for the first six months or so] sometime in 1885, but Cook apparently never applied for a liquor license. The next license in this area was granted to pioneer hotelkeeper Otto Klement in Lyman in 1886. William Todd — who would soon be a popular butcher in Woolley, obtained the fifth license in Sterling with a partner named Reis for Todd's Hall in September 1886. We are very curious if this Reis was the one who became Birdsey Minkler's partner in the new Lyman Shingle mill a year later. For the next two years, no new licenses were granted in the area. Entrepreneurs were apparently holding back to see if the rumored railroads were really going to materialize.

The railroad whistles blow
      They did. In a big way. In 1888, Henry Quinn opened the second saloon in Lyman and partners Noble and Weir opened the first saloon in Hamilton in June 1889. The first bar was opened in old Sedro by S.J. Begut [hard to read the handwriting] in August 1889 as the train crews for the Fairhaven & Southern roared into town to lay the last few miles of the track for that inaugural train line. The crews stayed on to fell the massive cedar and fir on the future townsites of Sedro and Woolley.
      The first bar opened in old Sauk City on the south side of the Skagit that fall — ill-timed because a fire soon swept through town and then a series of five floods started occurring in the 1890s, climaxed by the one in November 1897 that washed nearly every building away into the raging current.
      Gustav Pidde and M. Hurley opened the second bar in Sedro in December 1889. Englishman William Barratt opened the first bar for the future Marblemount area that same month, located on the east side of the Skagit, south of the mouth of the Cascade. The saloon was probably built right into his large home that also served as a boarding house and occasional hospital for loggers in the Cascade district and miners taking a hike upriver. Two more bars opened in Sedro the next February to partners Charles M. Myers and Thomas R. Callaghan and partners McDonald and Rees [or Ries or Reis].
      By the end of February 1890, records included the actual legal description of their location, which means that we can actually place them. The next bar for Sedro was opened that month by Charles Schutt and Co., on the lots where Skagit State Bank now stands on at Murdock and Ferry. You may think that would be Woolley, but actually Woolley ended at Murdock and everything south of the main district and east was actually in the Sedro precinct.
      In March, J.A. Frederichs opened a saloon in block 125 of old Sedro, just west of the F&S depot on the north side of McDonald avenue. His wife, Mary, later owned a noted boarding house in Woolley, with or without her husband. In May, Joseph Vaydon opened another saloon at 8th and Sterling between the two towns of Sedro and just a block from the future site of the city hall at 7th street. That started a move north by the saloons, first to new Sedro and then to Woolley in the early '90s. A variety of factors influenced this move: a series of nasty floods that washed away buildings on the river shore, fires and the eventually supremacy of Woolley as a business center. Partners Crossman and Chishom opened in block 121 of Sedro that summer, which was on the northwest corner of McDonald avenue at Fairhaven street, across the street from the F&S depot. That would be at today's entrance to Riverfront park.

(Maine Saloon)
      This photo features the interior of the Maine Saloon in Woolley sometime around the turn of the 20th century. A note on the back says that the saloon was owned by Joe Lederle, s German immigrant who was marshal for Sedro-Woolley right after 1900. Photo courtesy of Lawrence Harnden Jr..

Hamilton saloons boom along with the town
      Hamilton was really roaring that year, fueled by coal, timber and rumors of vast iron deposits across the river. Six saloons opened there that year, the first three for: Samuel Mansford, Joshua Broker and Co. and J.W. Whiteford, all along what was then Water street and is now just water or sand. The latter bar was soon bought out by Italian immigrant Pietro Jacobino and became the famous Yellowstone Bar and Hotel, and even later included a pool hall. The next three were opened by: Milton B. Cook, a transplant from LaConner; Charles Wicker, future Woolley real estate magnate, and his partner Robert Harris; and A. Revsbeck.
      Up in William Murdock's Grand Central Addition, east of Woolley, Murdock opened a saloon next door to the Charles Schutt location on the east side of Murdock stree in July 1890t. Murdock would soon leave the bar business because he had learned how to make money faster by selling lots on his 80 acres next to Woolley town. Besides, he was the first elected mayor, temporarily, in 1891 in the incorporated town of Woolley.
      Also in July 1890, the first saloon opened in the lakes district south of the Skagit. Partners John Hitzner [or Witzner] and Joseph Segault opened one up in Montborne, on the east side of Big Lake. By the way, to dispel another myth, Montborne was not owned by a Frenchman. The property was originally homesteaded by Dr. H.P. Montborne, the first physician in Mount Vernon. He discovered Big Lake soon after arriving in the winter of 1883-84 and sat on the property until Nelson Bennett of the F&S line platted the town in 1888 as part of his plan to cross the Skagit and connect with Seattle. After Bennett was thwarted in that plan and sold out the F&S to the Great Northern line in March 1890, Montborne sold out the townsite to the Virginia Land & Townsite Co. The latter company was owned by A.P. Dunham, who was president of the Seattle Lake Shore & Eastern rail line, the company that beat Bennett to the right-of-way south of the Skagit.
      The last saloon to open in old Sedro, in August 1890, was one owned by Peter Jaeger in block 128 on the south side of McDonald Ave, east of the F&S railway depot. William Todd, took a new partner, Charles Warner, in a new saloon at the corner of Bennett and 7th streets in that same month. Warner, the son of pioneer Cap Warner of Warner's Prairie, had just spent five years logging Mortimer Cook's timber claims; he committed suicide in Sedro in 1907. Todd married Charles's sister Lizzie. Down south, below the river, the first saloon opened at McMurray, owned by partners Keenan and McMartin. McMurray was rapidly becoming a town as SLS&E trains passed west of the lake there daily.
      In September 1890, William Hamilton, the town pioneer from 13 years later, opened a saloon at the northeast corner of Water street and Cumberland, next to his hotel. Within a year, his wife died and he left his children there to move to Oklahoma, where he married again and had four more children. A month later, E.D. Burton opened the first saloon in Burlington.
      The first saloon opened within the confines of P.A. Woolley's company town on Oct. 1, 1890, in the only building on block 4. That was the St. Clair Hotel, built by Fairhaven financier C.W. Waldron on the site of today's Gateway Hotel. Partners Means and Lyles owned the saloon in the hotel. A week later, John G. Hoehn bought out Schutt and Co. on Murdock; Hoehn was the son of Sedro pioneer Frank Hoehn, who brought the first horses here in 1889. The same week, R.L. Holmes and Edward Ball opened a saloon in block 2 of Woolley, on the south side of Northern avenue, across the street from the famous triangle crossing of the three rail lines [all three tracks still there in 2003] and the Union depot.
      In November 1890, the first building that we know of to open in new Sedro — on the current high school block, was a saloon owned by R.D. McDonald, who moved up from old Sedro. A day earlier, J.W. Peake opened his saloon in block 12 of Woolley, north of the Seattle & Northern [west-east tracks] and on the west side of Metcalf street. That was south, across the alley, from the North Star Hotel, which would become the famous Fern Rooms brothel during Prohibition. In the 1960s, Skagit Steel built their new administration building there. The North Star and the Grays Harbor boarding house, around the corner, were both "blind pigs," places where everyone from loggers to businessmen could go after hours to drink illegal liquor, play cards and "get lucky."

(Clear Lake Card Room)
      Clear Lake historian Deanna Ammons found this photo of the Clear Lake Card Room. It was a social center and saloon in Clear Lake before the turn of the century and was owned by Frank Bergeron. It may have preceded his Magnolia Saloon in that railroad/mill town south of the Skagit. He would later buy Charles Villeneuve's Hotel Royal on Ferry street in Woolley and rename it the Vendome.

Depression in the '90s and other changes in business
      Over the next two years, saloons in Sedro changed hands and followed the move north, as we outlined above. The number of licenses leveled out at about 11 at any one time. One myth was actually true: there were several more saloons than churches in those early days. Ministers railed against the dens of iniquity from their pulpits, but with no real effect. That would all change in 25 years but for now, the saloon was the social center for working men in town. Keep in mind that four out of five men were bachelors. This was a favorite destination for "working girls" who had their act together.
      Barbers like J.C. Ames soon cornered the market on lonely loggers. According to real old timers that we interviewed, Ames would send agents upriver on the S&N train to visit logging camps, where they would sell brass tokens that acted as tickets. When "the eagle flew" on paydays and you were lucky enough to have a day and a half or even two or three days off in a row, you rode the train downriver to Woolley and traded in your token for a shave and haircut at Ames's tonsorial parlor on Metcalf street, a bath and de-lousing, a few drinks and then a "throw" with your choice of girls at various brothels around town. Ames did well enough that he rode out the Depression after the financial panic of 1893 and then went to the Klondike district when gold fever broke out there in 1897-98. He came back with hundreds of beautiful pelts for furs. He dropped the risque side of his business after returning to Woolley, opened a new barbershop on the west side of the 800 block of Metcalf, and used the space next door to market his furs over the next couple of decades.
      At the turn of the century, the western part of Northern avenue was known as Whiskey Way, and the south side of State street was called Saloon Row. According to researcher Roger Peterson, the city council of the newly merged towns (merger in December 1898) either officially or informally decreed that new saloons would be restricted to those streets. The Osterman House at the corner of Ferry and Metcalf — the present site of the Gateway Hotel, was grandfathered in because it was the "respectable" hotel in town, a first class hotel for traveling businessmen and salesmen. Between Ferry and State streets, saloons were not granted licenses but the Capital Bar was grandfathered in as long as it maintained the highest standards, discouraged "loose ladies" and enforced a dress code. When its owner, T.J. Mullen, died, the authorization for a saloon was rescinded. Retailers in that downtown business core demanded such restrictions so that ladies would feel safe to stroll the sidewalks and shop in those two blocks. In that first decade of the century, the city council even went so far as to forbid horses in that district. As a result, that was probably the only area of town where the sweet smell of horse droppings would not assault milady's nose.
      The 1903 Polk Directory of Skagit county lists the following saloons in Sedro-Woolley: John Ormsby & James Westfall; Egan & McGrath, Grand Central Hotel; James Gray, [Palace]; Charles Hill; Leadbitter & Teible; C.E. Lyon & Co; T.J. Mullen, Capital Bar; Roe & Corbin; S.E. Shea; Oscar Stromberg & Kokko, Michigan Saloon; a total of ten.

      In the near future, we will continue this series with an amusing anonymous pamphlet on the evils of the Keystone Hotel and Saloon in old Woolley and our research of the Prohibition era — which started earlier in Washington than most of the rest of the U.S., and what led up to those dry, dismal days. Do you have scans or copies of photos, documents or articles to add to the story? We never ask for your originals.

First Saloons and liquor licenses, Skagit county
      The first liquor license for the future Skagit county area was listed in the Whatcom County Auditor's Records 1873-83 for James J. Conner et al on Dec. 7, 1876. The business was noted as Conner's hotel in LaConner and it was authorized to sell spirituous liquors at retail and to have a billiards table. Other names affiliated with him included John A. Cornelius, John Camble (possibly Campbell) and James A. Gilliland, who was then Justice of the Peace. Conner posted a bond of $1,100 and a note said that the bond would be reduced "if the said J.J. Conner shall keep a quiet orderly house as specified by law."
      The next license was granted on May 14, 1877 to Otto Klement and the locations is noted only as the "precinct of Mount Vernon." Other names on the license were Ed. G. English and Harrison Clothier, so we assume that it was for the store that the latter partners had recently erected near what is now called Main street, up the slope from the river landing. The bond was for $500.
      Next we find a bond of $1,000 paid for a license on Jan. 14, 1879, for John A. Biebel, who was associated in the ledger with Jonathan Schott and E.G. English in Mount Vernon. All three men made a mark on early Skagit river communities. Biebel later lived in Lyman at the hotel owned by Otto Klement. In 1882 he was the one who slaughtered the pig in the wonderful story, Hogtied, by Klement, who spelled his name, Bieble. English came to the Skagit valley from Wisconsin and worked first as a bookkeeper for George Savage's mill on Fir Island and then joined with Clothier, his former high school teacher, in building a store/hotel in their new village of Mount Vernon. Jonathan Schott and his wife owned a hotel at an undetermined location near Main street. Researcher Tom Robinson thinks it could have been near the present Kiev Cafe (former Dew Drop Inn) and suggests that it may have evolved into the Washington Hotel, later owned by Adelbert Ford and Bill Murdock and others.

Liquor licenses granted after November 1883
      Another ledger lists all the liquor licenses granted after Skagit county was split off from Whatcom in November 1883.
1 — Feb. 8, 1884 — Paul Polson — License $100 for six months [standard period of issuance at the time] — Retail sale of liquor "at his saloon" in LaConner precinct. [All these early Skagit licenses were signed by H.P. Owns, Skagit county auditor, and were authorized by a legislative act of Washington territory promulgated on Nov. 13, 1873.
2 — Feb. 18, 1884 — H. Botcher — $100 Retail Liquor — Mt. Baker precinct [unknown area; does a reader know?].
3 — Feb. 22, 1884 — Orrin Brann , George Moran, firm name Brann and Moran — $100 for retail liquor dealer license and $5 for 1 billiards table — Mount Vernon precinct.
4 — Mar. 18, 1884 — F.E. Gilkey, P. McCoy — Blurred, maybe name of business: FN G&M? — $100 Retail liquor dealers in Samish precinct — Renewed #17, Aug. 11, 1884; and #32, Feb. 24, 1885.
5 — March 11, 1884 — Frank Carrin (or Corrin) — $100 Retail Liquor — Skagit precinct [maybe Skagit City area].
6 — April 1, 1884 — John Brownrig [spelling?] — $100 Retail Liquor — Skagit precinct — Renewed #22 Oct. 22, 1884 and #36 April 8, 1885.
7 — April 7, 1884 — Thomas Cain — $100 Retail Liquor — Samish precinct.
8 — April 24, 1884 — J. Littlefield & Co. — $100 Retail Liquor — Samish precinct.
9 — May 21, 1884 — John Duffy — $100 Retail Liquor — Upper Skagit precinct.
10 — May 7, 1884 — $100 for retail liquor dealer license and $5 for 1 billiards table — Mount Vernon precinct.
11 — June 17, 1884 — Magnus Anderson — $100 Retail Liquor — Skagit precinct.
12 — Aug. 17, 1884 — Reed & McDaniel — $100 Retail Liquor — Mount Vernon precinct, retroactive to Feb. 6.
13 — June 24, 1884 — G.W.L. Allen — $100 Retail Liquor — in the town of Atlanta, Point Williams precinct, Samish, retroactive to May.
14 — June 18, 1884 — L.J. Turner — $100 Retail Liquor — Skagit precinct.
15 — June 27, 1884 — Adelbert Ford — $100 for retail liquor dealer license and $5 for 1 billiards table — Mount Vernon precinct. Although not named in the ledger, we suspect that this license was for the Washington Hotel, which Ford later owned with Bill Murdock. It was located west of present Main street and probably south of present Division street, about where Easton's Books is located in 2002. Until the later fires, that was the social center of town.
16 — July 25, 1884 — George Merriens [spelling?] — $100 Retail Liquor — unknown precinct.

Random subsequent licenses

      In 1888, the time period for a license increased to one year.

1890 with block locations
      Listings after this in the ledger actually give block locations, which make it easier to pinpoint exactly where the saloons were located.

      From now on, the ledger again includes the cost of license, $300 per year.

      We will add more in the future. Can anyone tell us more or supply photos of the saloons above?

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Story posted on Jan. 16, 2003, and Jan. 9, 2003, (two stories combined) and last updated Feb. 16, 2009
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